Main type of lighting fuel in Nepal. Source:

Kerosene is still used as the primary source of lighting fuel in districts such as Saptari, Rautahat, and Sarlahi with usage rate being close to 50% and higher. It is also used for cooking, heating, and other household purposes.

WHO reports that breathing large quantities of kerosene vapor and drinking kerosene-based liquids may cause dizziness, headache, and vomiting. Continuous skin exposure to kerosene may result in dermatitis (eczema) and a severe form of lung injury called pneumonitis may occur if liquid kerosene is directly inhaled into the lungs. It also states that exposure to kerosene for a brief amount of time is unlikely to produce any long-term health hazards.

A study funded by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and published in 2012 suggested that high black carbon emissions from kerosene contribute to global warming.

Electricity seems to be another popular choice of lighting fuel in most of the districts in province two.

Sustainable sources of fuels such as biogas and solar are least used across all districts in the province 2.